Read the passage below and answer questions 1 to 5 based on the passage. For each question, four options are given. One of them is the correct answer. Make your choice (1, 2, 3 or 4).
As early as 1000 BC, the Chinese cut and stored ice for use in warmer weather. 500 years later, the Egyptians and Indians made ice on cold nights by leaving water in wet earthenware pots outside. In 18th century England, servants collected ice in the winter and put it into ice houses. The sheets of ice were packed in salt, wrapped in strips of flannel and stored underground to keep them frozen until summer.
Ice houses were then replaced with smaller ice boxes that were made of wood. These boxes were lined with tin and insulated with sawdust. Drip pans collected the melted water from the boxes and someone had to empty them every day. In the 18th century, scientist Michael Faraday liquefied ammonia to cause cooling. Today's refrigerator and freezer, together with air conditioners and de-humidifiers, work on an idea adapted from Faraday's experiments.
Refrigerators compress a gas into a liquid. This process generates heat, which you can usually feel at the back of your refrigerator. The liquid is pumped through pipes to the inside of the refrigerator before being allowed to expand back into a gas. This process absorbs heat, cooling the inside of the refrigerator.
However, people did not switch from ice boxes to modern refrigerators voluntarily. Warm winters in 1889 and 1890 in America created shortages of natural ice. Grocery stores and food industries were forced to use large refrigerators to freeze and store fish, dairy products and meat so that they would not go bad.
In 1911, General Electric released a home refrigerator that was invented by a French monk. This model used compressors that were fitted with a dial in the back of the refirgerator to control its temperature. Later, more stylish steel refrigerators were introduced. Today, the refrigerator is one of the most common home appliances.
It kept the ice cold.
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